PPU Framework



This is a framework for designing speaking lessons. It is not the only one, but is effective for helping create lessons that are organized, coherent, and lead to a clear lesson objective.


The stages of a speaking lesson organized in this way are:

  • Present - During this phase, Ss understand the context being used, the form, meaning and use of the vocabulary, function(s), pronunciation point or grammar, and/or the speaking skills (stating an opinion, pausing while speaking, interrupting, etc.), which are the focus of the lesson.   (Awareness)
  • Practice - Ss practice the speaking skills and/or the language component of the lesson by doing tasks which

Ø      are designed to help Ss increase their accuracy or correctness

Ø      move from Ss’ having no choice of what to say (repetition or drills) to more, but still limited, choice of the form, meaning, or use of the skill or language they use in the activity. (Accuracy)

  • Use - Students use the language or skill to complete a communicative task similar to an activity they will or may do outside the classroom. (Fluency)




Sample activities



Students need to be exposed to new language and skills in an authentic way by the teacher, their peers, or a listening or reading text.

·         Brainstorming/eliciting vocabulary

·         Analyzing/noticing language in a text

·         Using people and things in the classroom

·         Learning a dialogue

·         Watch and follow a model

·         Elicitation from students of vocabulary they already know




Students need time and practice to remember the new language or skill and to explore the limits of its form, meaning, and use.

·         Gapfill

·         Matching

·         Cloze

·         Selecting the correct answer

·         Substitution or transformation drills

·         Listening/Reading and repeating/saying

·         Finding and correcting errors

·         Question and Answer (Q&A)

·         Completing a sentence or question starter

·         Sorting

·         Word prompts

·         Information gap



Students need a chance to personalize and use the new language or skill, to do something they are likely to do outside class; fluency tasks also help Ss remember the language or skill, and give the T a chance to assess Ss’ learning.


·         Guessing

·         Categorizing

·         Ranking

·         Comparing/Making Connections

·         Interpreting

·         Problem-solving

·         Ordering

·         Sharing Personal Information

·         Sharing General Information

·         Creative project

·         Role-play

·         Retell

·         Structured Discussion