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Natural Approach: Pioneered by Krashen, this approach combines acquisition and learning as a means of facilitating language development in adults.  The approach emphasizes natural communication rather than formal grammar study, informal acquisition of language rules, and tolerance for learners’ errors.

Natural Order Hypothesis:  Most second language acquisition researchers agree that there is a predictable order in which first and second language learners acquire particular aspects of language.  This is known as the natural order hypothesis. Please note: research evidence suggests that the order in which children learn the rules, forms and items in their first language is not the same as the order in which students learn the rules, forms and items of the language they study in school.
Needs analysis:  Needs analysis is an activity or series of activities teachers give students to do in order to find out what the students’ learning needs are. A good understanding of learner needs can contribute to successful course planning.
Negotiation of Meaning: When learners interact with native speakers or other learners, they often have problems in communicating. In order for their communication to be successful, students need to be able to indicate understanding, lack of understanding and desire for the conversation to continue or not.  They also need to be able to help each other express ideas and, when necessary, to make corrections to what was said and how something was said.  These aspects of what speakers do during a successful conversation is called 'negotiation of meaning.’
Non-verbal Communication: Paralinguistic and non-linguistic messages can be transmitted in conjunction with language or without the aid of language during communication. Paralinguistic mechanisms include intonation, stress, rate of speech, and pauses or hesitations; non-linguistic behaviors include gestures, facial expressions, and body language.

Norm-referenced test: A norm-referenced test measures a candidate's mark against what other people are achieving in the same test. It can be compared with a criterion-referenced test, which measures a candidate's mark against a series of criteria and produces a description of level based on those criteria. Norm-referenced tests are useful for indicating the level of an individual learner in comparison with others.

Noticing hypothesis:  The noticing hypothesis suggests that language learners must first notice, or pay attention to, language forms before they can acquire them.  This attention to linguistic form could happen accidentally, or because a textbook or person points it out. 

Noticing: When learners "notice" language, they pay special attention to its meaning, form, and use.  Noticing is regarded as an important part of the process of learning new language and will only occur when the learner is ready to take on the new language.  It can occur for different reasons:  learners may notice their errors in their production; they may simply be intrigued or interested in something new they hear or see; or they may need language they do not yet have in order to communicate, notice the "gap" in their knowledge and so notice the language others’ use to communicate the same meaning.