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Valid:  See Validity below.  A test can be called valid if it has validity.
 
Validity: A test's validity refers to the degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure.  For example, a test intended to assess students’ ability to use the past tense has validity if it requires students to use regular and irregular past forms they have studied or could be expected to know, in assessment activities they are familiar with, in positive and negative sentences, and/or in questions; the same test would have little to no validity if it tested students on things they could not be expected to know using types of test items students have never experienced before and if it did not assess a range of regular and irregular verbs, positive and negative sentences and questions.   Statistical measures are applied to tests to assess their validity. Validity can be compared with reliability, which refers to how consistent the results are if the test were given under the same conditions to the same learners.
 
Variability: Language learners vary in the use they make of their linguistic knowledge. This can be systematic or unsystematic.
 
Visual Aid: Visual aids are the pictures, diagrams, maps, graphs and/or realia, etc a teacher uses to help students understand, to introduce and set the scene for a reading or listening text, or to stimulate students’ thinking, speaking, discussion and/or writing.
 

Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (VAK): VAK, or Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic, refers to one model of learning styles. The VAK model is comprised of three different learning styles, or preferred ways of learning. In some accounts, another style, tactile, is included.

  

Vocabulary:  Vocabulary has two meanings in English language teaching.  First, it means the individual words that students learn as part of their study of English.  The term lexis rather than vocabulary is increasingly preferred now because lexis includes not only single words, but also multi-word combinations.  Please see Lexis.  The second meaning of vocabulary is ‘the set of words that a person is familiar with in a particular language’.  It is possible to say that a person has ‘a large vocabulary’ or that students’ active or productive vocabulary is usually smaller than their passive or receptive vocabulary.

 

Vocabulary Bank: A vocabulary bank is a collection of new lexis –words, phrases and expressions - that the learner or class builds up as they learn.

 

Voiced (Voicing):  Some English sounds are produced using the vocal chords and some are pronounced without using them.  The use or non-use of the vocal cords to produce sounds is called voicing.  Sounds that are produced using the vocal chords are called voiced sounds.  For example, /d/, /g/, /b/, /m/ and all vowels are voiced sounds.  Sounds that are produced without using the vocal chords are called unvoiced sounds.  For example, /t/, /k/, /p/and /f/ are unvoiced sounds.

 

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