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Warmer/ Warm-Up: A warmer is a short, active, participatory activity at the start of the class to get students thinking in and speaking English, to bring the class together – in other words, to warm up the learners. Warmers can be compared to coolers, which are short, often calming activities to finish the class.  

Weakened:  Please see Weakening.

Weakening:  Vowels in unstressed syllables in connected speech often change so they become shorter and more like the vowel sound in the in the phrase ‘in the corner.’  This sound is called the ‘schwa’ and is represented by the phonetic symbol, /ə/.  Not all weakened vowels become schwa.

Word Grammar:  Word grammar is the structural pattern in which an individual word is correctly used.  For example, the verb ‘want’ must be followed by an object.  It is not possible to say only “I wanted”; it is necessary to say “I wanted (something)”.  In addition, it is not correct to say, “I wanted him coming”; it is necessary to say “I wanted him to come”.  Thus the word grammar for these two uses of ‘want’ is: ‘want + object’ and ‘want + object + infinitive.’  When learning new words, students need to know this kind of information to help them use the word correctly. 

Word stress:  In English, in words of more than one syllable, one or more syllables are usually pronounced a little more strongly than the others.  These syllables are pronounced more loudly, are a little longer than other syllables, and are also a little higher than other syllables.  This is called word stress.  Word stress can change the meaning of words.  For example, the word ‘dessert’ (something sweet eaten after a meal) has stress on the second syllable, but the word ‘desert’ (a dry area such as the Sahara) has stress on the first syllable.  Word stress can also change the part of speech.  For example, ‘record’ is a verb, but ‘record’ is a noun.  For these reasons, stressing the wrong syllable(s) can seriously affect understanding.  It is therefore very important to help students notice which syllables are stressed.  A good dictionary indicates which syllable is stressed in a word.   

Workbook: A workbook is usually part of a coursebook series (teacher’s, student’s and workbook).  Workbooks contain extra practice activities for learners to work on in their own time. Usually the book is designed so that learners can write in it and often there is an answer key provided at the back of the book so that learners can check their own work.

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